IT-600 Electrical Power System Trainer(4in1)

Features:

  • Module Based
  • Power Supplies Included
  • Flexibility to Perform Custom Experiments
  • Passive Components Included
  • Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors Loads Included
  • Control Circuits Included
  • P.T. and other Passive Components Included
  • Protection Circuits Included

Experiments Included:

Alternator and Parallel Operation Experiments

  • Determination of the effective resistance of stator and exciter windings of the alternator.
  • Determination of the mechanical and iron losses of the alternator.
  • Recording the open-circuit curve at various speeds.
  • Determination of the ohmic and stray losses of the alternator.
  • Recording the short-circuit curve at various speeds.
  • Calculating the synchronous reactance.
  • Recording the response of the alternator operating with the excitation and speed kept constant under different types of load.
  • Recording the regulation characteristics at different power factors.
  • Determination of the conventional efficiency of the alternator using the open-and short-circuit test results.
  • Becoming familiar with various lamp circuits used to connect an alternator in parallel to a constant voltage constant-frequency system.
  • Parallel operation using a synchronoscope.
  • Response of the alternator on a constant-voltage constant-frequency system.

Three-Phase Transformer Experiments

  • Determination of the vector group of the three-phase transformer.
  • Determination of the voltage transformation ratio of the transformer operating at no-load.
  • Determination of the current transformation ratio of the transformer operating with short-circuit.
  • Determination of the equivalent circuit quantities based on the consumed active and reactive power.
  • Measurement of the effect of the load type and magnitude on the performance of the secondary voltage.
  • Determination of the efficiency of the transformer.
  • Investigation of the zero-impedance of the three-phase transformer with various connection modes.
  • Examination of the load capacity of the secondary side using a single-phase load with different connection modes on the primary side.
  • Determination of the influence of a delta stabilizing winding.
  • Demonstration of the possibility of utilizing a three-phase transformer in economy connection (auto-transformer).

Overhead Line Model Experiments

  • Measurement of the voltage in no-load operation.
  • Concept of operating capacitance.
  • Line model with increased operating capacitance.
  • Measurement of current and voltage relationship of an overhead line in matched-load operation, interpretation of the terms: characteristic wave impedance,  Lagging and leading operation, Efficiency and transmission losses.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line during a three-phase short-circuit.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line with mixed ohmic-inductive and pure inductive loads.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line with mixed ohmic-capacitive and pure capacitive loads.
  • Investigation on the performance of a transmission line with isolated neutral point connection in the case of a fault to earth.
  • Measurement of the earth-fault current and the voltage rise of the fault phases.
  • Determination of the inductance of an earth-fault neutralizer for the overhead line model.
  • Investigation on the performance of a transmission line with a fault and comparison of the current values with those determined during earth-fault with isolated neutral point system.
  • Measurement of the fault currents of the results with those for a three-phase fault.
  • Investigation on the effect of parallel compensation on the voltage stability at the load and the transmission losses of the line.
  • Investigation on the effect of series compensation on the voltage stability at the load.
  • Use of measurement techniques to determine the zero-phase sequence impedance of the overhead line model and comparison of this value with the theoretical one.

Alternator and Parallel Operation Experiments

  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the series connection of two lines without operating capacitance.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the series connection of two lines with operating capacitances.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the parallel connection of two lines without operating capacitances.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the parallel connection of two lines with operating capacitance.

Busbar System Experiments

  • Operation of a switching station with two bushars and different voltage.
  • Busbar transfer with interruption of the power supply to the consumer.
  • Busbar coupling and bus transfer without interruption of the power supply to the consumer.
  • Switching sequence for disconnectors and power circuit breakers.

Instrument Transformers Experiments

  • Determination of the transformation ratio of a current transformer for various primary currents and investigation on the influence of the load on the transformation ratio.
  • Explanation of the terms: ratio error (current error), accuracy class and rated accuracy limit factor.
  • Test on the performance of the current transformer at over-current.
  • Assembly of the common current transformer circuit for measurement on three-phase network.
  • Measurements of the zero-phase sequence current of a three-phase system.
  • Measurements on a summation current transformer.
  • Demonstration of the principle of differential protection.
  • Determination of the transformation ratio of a voltage transformer for various primary voltages and investigation on the influence of the load on the transformation ratio.
  • Explanation of the terms: ratio error (voltage error) and accuracy class.
  • Assembly of he common voltage transformer circuit for measurements in three-phase network.
  • Measurement of the residual voltage in a three-phase system with a fault to ground.
  • Assembly of a voltage transformer circuit in open delta connection.
  • Measurement of the three conductor voltages on symmetrical and asymmetrical loads.

Protective Relays Experiments

  • Connection of an under/over voltage relay in a three-phase network and investigation on its behaviour with respect to under and over-voltage.
  • Determination of the resetting ratio of an under/over voltage relay.
  • Measurement of the operating time of an under/over voltage relay.
  • Connection of a definite time over-current relay in a three-phase network and investigation on its behaviour with respect to different settings.
  • Determination of the resetting ratio of a definite time over current relay.
  • Measurement of the operating time of a definite time over-current relay.
  • Connection of an inverse time over-current relay in a three-phase network and investigation on its behaviour with respect to different settings.
  • Measurement of the operating time of an inverse time over-current relay.
  • Investigation on an earth-fault relay.
  • Check of the operate time set.
  • Demonstration of an earth-fault alarm in a three-phase network.
  • Reaction to so-called transient earth faults.
  • Investigation on a directional earth-fault relay behaviour for effective currents and on the direction of operation.
  • Investigation on a combined over-current and earth-fault relay behaviour connected in a solid earthed three-phase network.
  • Demonstration of how the external blocking input works.

Protection of HV Line Experiments

  • Demonstration of how an under/over voltage time relay monitors the protection of a load against under-and over-voltage.
  • Demonstration of the protection of a transmission line connected in a solid earthed network, when there is a three-phase, two-phase or single-phase short-circuit.
  • Demonstration of how an earth-fault warning relay monitors the transmission line for an earth fault in a network with isolated neutral connection.

Power Factor Improvement Experiments

  • Demonstration of the manual operation on the control of reactive power at various inductive load.
  • Demonstration of the automatic operation on the control of reactive power at various inductive loads and at different sensitivities.

Energy Meters and Tariffs Experiments

  • Demonstration of the measurement of active energy consumption.
  • Demonstration of the measurement of reactive energy consumption.
  • Determination of the meters constant.
  • Demonstration of the measurement of the maximum demand.
  • Demonstration of load cut-off operation.

Description

The electrical power cannot be stored in large quantities and consequently, it has to be generated at the same time as the consumers needs it. The generation of electrical energy is performed by means of high power synchronous machines or alternators, whose construction design depends on the type of drive/prime movers i.e. gas, steam, water or by any motor AC/DC.

Then the synchronous generator must be connected in parallel with a constant voltage and frequency, on reaching its nominal speed, excitation voltage and current may be increased from zero until the stator voltage is brought up to the same level as that of the network.

To obtain this situation the magnitude, the phase rotation and the rotational direction of the two voltages may be achieved. This procedure is termed as synchronization.

AC electrical power is generated in power stations, usually far from end users. This power is then transported over long distances using high voltage and low loss transmission lines. High voltage is achieved by using step up transformers and is fed to the transmission lines. Similarly, at user end, step down transformers are used to provide power to the users. This is possible only by using transformers. Transformers are used for stepping up the voltage of the generator to values which are suitable for high voltage systems, for power exchanging between networks, for stepping down the voltages to the medium voltage level and then for feeding the power into the low voltage network. In this laboratory a three-phase transformer is investigated. It consists of three individual poles with different connection possibilities on the primary side and variable secondary voltage. Power transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy from the power stations to the consumers.

Advantage of three-phase systems is that it provides the consumers with two different levels of voltage, so that they can use their equipment in the best possible way. A three-phase model of an overhead power transmission line (with a simulated length of 360 km long, a simulated voltage of 380 kV and a simulated current of 1000 A) is used, with a scale factor of 1:1000. Transmission line characteristics are investigated under various load conditions. Circuit configurations are then connected for the demonstration of various neutral point connections in three-phase mains systems. Different voltage levels are used for transmitting power; the levels are determined by the amount of power and the distance; the higher the transmission voltages, the lower the currents as well as the transmission losses. However the network investment cost increases with the voltage.

Asymmetrical short-circuits are also simulated. Other topics covered by this laboratory are reactive power compensation, the basic circuits of power engineering, series and parallel connections of operating equipment (lines, transformers), circuit involving the conversion of delta connections to star connections, circuit involving the conversion of star connections to delta connections, busbars, disconnectors, power circuit breakers, voltage and current transformers.

In an Electrical Power System currents and voltages must be monitored constantly to make sure that the values remain within the required limits. This will also switch off the faulty sections from the main supply network. It is important to identify the fault and to isolate the faulty section automatically from the network because this will result in collapse of the entire electrical power system. These protection systems need to be fast and reliable in events of fault in order to avoid any large scale damage. It is important that the protection system identifies and isolates the faulty section without affecting the remaining power system.

A number of protective relays are analyzed: under/over voltage time relays, definite time over-current relays, inverse time over-current relays, combined over-current and earth-fault relay, directional relay and earth-fault relays. Large energy consumers like industrial plants, processing plants and manufacturing units are required to provide compensation for reactive power used by them. Modern electrical control circuits also generate harmonics in the network.

This laboratory addresses the topics like reactive power compensation, reactive power controllers, measurement of electrical energy in three phase networks, cost of power consumed by the customers. These topics are analyzed from the theoretical point of view and also by means of practical examples.

List of Electrical Power Trainer

Description Module Qty
Variable Three-Phase Power Supply

  • Power supply provides variable 3-Phase Voltage
  • Key Operated Emergency Switch
  • Protection: 10 A, Direct On Line (DOL) Starter
  • Push-Button: Start, Stop and Emergency
  • Motor Protection Breaker: 10 A
  • Digital 3 phase analyzer
  • Output Adjusted by Rotary Knob
  • Output: 3 x 0-380 V @ 8 A
  • Supply voltage: Three-Phase from Mains
IT-6000 1
Variable DC Power Supply

  • Key Operated Emergency Switch
  • Protection: 10 A, Direct On Line (DOL) Starter
  • Push-Button: Start, Stop and Emergency
  • Motor Protection Breaker: 10 A
  • Digital DC Ammeter
  • Digital DC Voltmeter
  • Output Adjusted by Rotary Knob
  • Output: 0-250V @ 8A
  • Supply voltage: Single-Phase from Mains
IT-6001 1
Line Model

  • Simulated Length: 360km
  • Simulated Voltage: 380kV
  • Simulated Current: 1000A
  • Scale factor: 1:1000
  • Mutual capacitance: 1mF
  • Earth capacitance: 2mF
  • Line resistance: 13Ω
  • Line inductance: 290 mH
  • Earth resistance: 11Ω
  • Earth inductance: 250 mH
IT-6002 2
Three-Phase Transformer

  • Scale Factor: 1:1000
  • Primary Input: 3 x 380 V
  • Connection Type: Star or Delta
  • Secondary Output: 3 x 220 V windings with taps at +5%, -5%, -10%, -15%
  • Star connection for 3 x 380 V various star connections possible
  • Power: 800 VA
  • Tertiary Output: 3 x 220 V windings
  • Delta connection for stabilizing the third harmonic voltage components
IT-6003 1
Resistive Load

  • Max Load in 3-Phase: 1200 W
  • Rated voltage: 380/220V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6004 1
Inductive Load

  • Max Reactive Power: 890 Var
  • Rated voltage: 380/220 V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6005 1
Capacitive Load

  • Max Reactive Power: 1090 Var
  • Rated voltage: 380/220 V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6006 1
DC Motor

  • Power: 2.2 kW
  • Voltage: 220 VDC
  • Speed: 3600 rpm
  • Current: 13A
IT-6007 1
Three-Phase Synchronous Machine

  • Alternator: 1.1 kVA
  • Motor: 1 kW
  • Voltage: 220/400 V   / Y
  • Current: 4/2.5 A
  • Speed: 3000 rpm
  • DC rotor excitation winding
IT-6008 1
Three-Phase Squirrel Cage

  • Power: 0.75 kW
  • Voltage: 220/380 V   / Y
  • Connection Type:   / Y
  • Current: 1.7 A approx.
  • Speed: 1440 rpm
IT-6009 1
Magnetic Brake

  • Rated power: 1480 rpm
  • Maximum speed: 4000 rpm
  • Measurement: Torque
  • Transducer: Optical and Load Cell
IT-6010 1
Brake Control Unit

  • Supply Volt: 230 V, 50/60 Hz
  • Speed  Range: 2000 rpm
  • Torque  Range: 10 – 20
  • Power Supply Section:
  • Output: 0-20 VDC @ 1 A
IT-6011 1
Load Cell IT-6012 1
Speed Sensor

  • For measuring the rotation speed. Suitable for being mounted on the machines of the laboratory.
IT-6013 2
Universal Base

  • Alloy structure mounted on anti-vibration rubber feet, provided with slide guides for fixing one or two machines. Complete with coupling guard.
IT-6014 2
Digital Tachometer

  • Supply: Single Phase from the mains
  • Range: 0 to 9999 rpm with signals coming from the standard optical transducers
  • Signal Input: Optical Transducer
IT-6015 1
Experiment Transformer (0-250 V @ 5 A)

Outputs:

  • Single-Phase: 0-250 V @ 3 A
  • Protection: 10A Breaker, Fuse 2.5A and Fuse 5A
  • Low voltage Single Phase:
  • 0-42 V @ 3 A
  • 0-24 V @ 6A
  • 0-12 V @ 12 A
  • DC Voltage: 50 A Rectifier for all ranges
IT-6016 1
Three-Phase Power Supply

  • Digital 3-phase analyzer
  • Input: 3-Phase 380V
  • Output Protection: 30 A current operated earth leakage circuit breaker
  • Four-pole motor protection switch: 6.3-12 A.
  • Three-phase indicator lamps
  • Output through 5 safety terminals: L1, L2, L3, N and PE
IT-6017 1
DC Variable Power Supply 

  • Output: 0-30 V @ 1 A
IT-6018 1
Power Circuit Breaker with Integrated PLC

  • PLC integrated inside
  • Contact Load: 400 VAC @ 3 A
  • Supply Voltage: Single-Phase from the mains
IT-6019 4
Double Busbar with Two Disconnectors with Integrated PLC

  • 2 Busbars for parallel lines operation
  • Having 2 outgoing feeders for connection / disconnection
  • PLC integrated inside
IT-6020/2 1
Double Busbar with Four Disconnectors with Integrated PLC

  • 2 Busbars for parallel lines operation
  • Having 4 outgoing feeders for connection / disconnection
  • PLC integrated inside
IT-6020/4 1
Line Capacitor

  • Line Model: 380kV
  • Length: 360km
  • Capacitance: 3 x 2.5 mF @ 450V AC
IT-6021 2
Petersen Coil

  • Inductance with 20 taps for earth fault compensation in transmission lines
  • Inductance: 0.005-2000mH
  • Rated voltage: 220 V
  • Rated current: 0.5 A
IT-6022 1
CT Load

  • Load for the single-phase current transformer consisting of two separated ohmic resistors
  • Fixed resistor: 0.5 Ω, load 7 A
  • Variable resistor: 0 … 60 Ω, load 1 A
  • Range: 0 … 100%
  • Fuse Protection: 1A
IT-6023 1
VT Load

  • Load for the single-phase voltage transformer consisting of two separated ohmic resistors
  • Fixed resistor: 220 Ω
  • Load: 0.5 A (0.5 A fuse)
  • Variable resistor: 330-1930 Ω
  • Load: 0.25 A fused
IT-6024 1
Under/over Voltage Time Relay

  • Function: Under/Over Voltage, Phase Sequence(L1,L2,L3) and Phase Failure Detector
  • Supply: 380V
  • Delay: 0.5-30sec
  • Output Relay: 230VAC @ 5A
  • Frequency: 50/60Hz
IT-6025 1
Definite Time Over-Current Relay

  • Single Phase inputs from the mains
  • Current Range: 0~6 A
  • Output Relay: 250VAC @ 5A
  • Adjustable operation time
  • Adjustable delay time
  • Trip Time: 0-10 sec
IT-6027 1
Combined Over-Current and Earth-Fault Relay

  • Single phase input form the mains
  • Voltage Input: 3 X 50-100V
  • Current Input: 5/1A
  • Earth Fault Current Input: 5
  • Trip relay: 2
  • Control relay: 2
  • Type of Fault:
  • Over Current
  • Inverse Time Over Current
  • Over Current Ground
  • Negative Phase Sequence Over Current
  • Under Current
  • Circuit Breaker Failure
IT-6028 1
Directional Relay

  • Voltage Input: 400 V
  • Current Input: 5 A
  • Frequency: 16-75Hz
  • Digital Input: 2
  • Digital Input Volt: 18-265 V
  • Trip relay: 4
  • Alarm relay: 1
  • Internal fault Relay: 1
  • Type of Fault:
  • Directional Earth Fault
  • Over Current
  • Transient Earth Fault
  • Current Unbalance
  • Phase Sequence
  • Under Current
  • Thermal Overload
  • Reverse Power
IT-6029 1
L/C Loads

  • Suitable for insertion of fault types to trigger the single-phase directional relay.
  • Inductance: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 H
  • Rated voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz
  • Rated current: 0.5 A
  • Capacitance: 2, 4, 8, 16 mF
  • Rated voltage: 450 V AC
IT-6030 1
Over/Under Voltage & Earth Fault Control Relay

  • Single phase supply from the mains
  • Voltage Input: 3 x 100 V
  • Current Input: 5/1A
  • Earth Fault Current Input: 5
  • Trip relay: 2
  • Control relay: 2

Type of Fault:

  • Over/Under Voltage
  • Over/Under Frequency
  • Earth Fault
IT-6031 1
Reactive Power Controller

  • Microprocessor Based
  • Power Factor Info
  • Auto C/K Detection
  • Supply: 240V AC
  • Rated Current: 0-5A
IT-6032 1
Switchable Capacitor Battery

Switchable Capacitor Banks for Reactive Power Compensation. In star connection with discharging resistors:

  • Bank 1: 3 x 2 mF @ 450 V
  • Bank 2: 3 x 4 mF @ 450 V
  • Bank 3: 3 x 8 mF @ 450 V
  • Bank 4: 3 x 16 mF @ 450 V
  • Compensation power: max 1360 VAr at 50 Hz, 380 V
IT-6033 1
Moving Coil Ammeter (1000mA)

  • Range:  0-1000 mA AC
IT-6034 4
Moving Coil Ammeter (3A)

  • Range: 0~2.5 A  AC
IT-6035 3
Moving Iron Ammeter (5A)

  • Range:  0-5A AC
IT-6036 2
Moving Iron Voltmeter (600V)

  • Range: 0-600V AC
IT-6037 2
Moving Iron Voltmeter (500V)

  • Range: 0-500V AC
IT-6038 4
Synchronization Indicator

  • 3 series of 2 lamps
  • Voltage: 380 V
  • H11 – H12, H21 – H22 and H31 – H32
IT-6039 1
Phase Sequence Indicator

  • Operating voltage: 250-500V
  • Frequency: 45Hz – 65 Hz
IT-6040 1
Double Frequency Meter (45-65Hz)

  • Range: 2 x (45-65) Hz
  • Voltage: 380 V
IT-6041 1
Double Voltmeter (500V)

  • 2X 0-500V AC
IT-6042 1
Single-Phase Current Transformer

  • Primary Current: 5/1 A
  • Secondary Current: 1 A
  • Frequency: 50 Hz – 60 Hz
IT-6043 1
Three-Phase Current Transformer

  • Primary Current: 5/1 A
  • Secondary Current: 1 A
  • Frequency: 50 Hz – 60 Hz
IT-6044 1
Single-Phase Voltage Transformer

  • Primary Voltage: 220V
  • Secondary Voltage 33V @ 15VA
  • Secondary Voltage 65V @ 5 VA
  • Frequency: 50 – 60 Hz
IT-6045 1
Three-Phase Voltage Transformer

  • Primary Voltage: 380 V
  • Secondary Voltage: 33 V @ 15VA
  • Secondary Voltage: 65 V @ 5 VA
  • Frequency: 50 Hz – 60 Hz
IT-6046 1
Summation Current Transformer

  • Primary Rated Current: 5 x 2.5 A
  • Transformation Ratio: 2.5/1
  • Secondary Rated Current: 1 A
  • Rated power: 5 VA
IT-6047 1
Power Meter

  • Measurement: Voltage, Current, Frequency, Active Power, Reactive Power and Power Factor
  • Supply: Single Phase from the mains
  • Display: 7-Segment LED
  • Measurement ranges:
  • Volt: 0-600V
  • Current: 5/1A via CT
  • Frequency ranges:
  • Active Power: 50/60 Hz
  • Reactive Power: 50/60 Hz
IT-6048 1
Power Factor Meter

  • Measurement: Voltage, Current, Frequency, Active Power, Reactive Power and Power Factor
  • Supply: Single Phase from the mains
  • Display: 7-Segment LED
  • Measurement ranges:
  • Volt: 0-600V
  • Current: 5/1A via CT
  • Frequency ranges:
  • Active Power: 50/60 Hz
  • Reactive Power: 50/60 Hz
IT-6049 1
Three-Phase kWH / kVArh Meter

  • Supply: 220/380V
  • Frequency: 50/60Hz
  • Measurement: kWH, kVArh, kVAh, Volts, Amp, Power Factor, Inst Watts, kVAr, kVA, kW
  • Current: 0-5A
  • Voltage: 0-220V
IT-6050 1
Three-Phase Power Meter

  • Supply: 400V
  • Mainboard: Microprocessor Controlled
  • Measurement:
  • Volt: 80-500V
  • Current: 5A
  • Frequency: 47-63Hz
  • Active Power
  • Reactive Power
IT-6051 1
Synchronoscope

  • Voltage: 380 V
  • Frequency: 45-60 Hz
IT-6053 1
Moving Coil Ammeter (1000mA)

  • Range: 0-1000mA & 5 A DC
IT-6054 1
Moving Coil Voltmeter (30V)

  • Range: 0-30V & 500V DC
IT-6055 1
Electronics Stop Clock

  • Measuring range: 9h, 59min, 59s, 99/100s
  • Selectable split or lap function.
  • Battery: 1.5V
  • Acoustic Continuity Tester
IT-Clock 1
Base Frame

  • 2-Level Frame
IT-2L 4
Leads (Accessory)

  • 1 set: 120 Pcs
IT-ACC 1set

Expansion Module (optional):

  • Differential Transformer Relay         – IT-6059 –  1Pc
  • Three Phase Current Transformer   – IT-6044 – 2pc

Experiments with Expansion Module:

  • Definite time over current protection.
  • Inverse time over current protection.
  • Earth fault
  • Transformer differential protection.