• Laws of heat transfer by radiation coming from a light source and from a heat source
  • Inverse Square Law for Heat – To show that the intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source.
  • Stefan-Boltzmann Law – To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.
  • Kickoff’s Law – To determine the validity of Kickoff’s Law which states that the emissivity of a grey surface is equal to its absorptivity of radiation received from another surface when in a condition of thermal equilibrium.
  • Area Factors – To demonstrate that the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is dependent upon their interconnecting geometry, i.e. a function of the amount that each surface can ‘see’ of the other.
  • Inverse Square Law for Light – To show that the
  • illuminance of a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the light source.
  • Lambert’s Cosine Law – To show that the energy radiated in any direction at an angle with a surface is equal to the normal radiation multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the direction of radiation and the normal to the surface.
  • Lambert’s Law of Absorption – To show that light passing through non-opaque matter is reduced in intensity in proportion to the thickness and absorptivity of the material.
  • Determining the emissivity of radiating surface with different finishes namely polished and gray compared with matt black.
  • Demonstrating on how the emissivity of radiating surface in close proximity to each other will affect the surface temperature and the heat exchanged.
  • Study of the temperature distribution along an extended surface and comparing the result with a theoretical value.
  • Study of the heat transfer from an extended surface resulting from the combined modes of free convection and radiation heat transfer and comparing the result with a theoretical analysis.
  • Determination of the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of the rod material.
  • Monitoring the changes in temperature for bodies of different sizes, shapes and materials, which are dropped into the hot water bath.
  • Analysis of the results obtained from different solid shapes using analytical temperature/heat flow charts.
  • Determination of the conductivity of a shape using the results obtained from similar shape made of different material.
  • Determination of BIOT number for solid cylinder.


  • Heat transfer service unit for heat transfer modules
  • Digital display of Temperature
  • Digital display of Voltage and current
  • Autonomous pilot unit with computerized control software
  • UPS with significant backup to shut down the plant in the event of a power outage
  • Computer system for the Acquisition of data from plant
  • Data acquisition via USB under Window
  • Spares will be supplied for smooth operation for the period of 1 year.
  • The unit will be provided with all required accessories for smooth running, gases with cylinders (where required), calibration kits (if required), installation & after-sale services, maintenance services and operational manuals.

 Measuring ranges

Temperature: -100~400oC
Heater power: 0~150W

 Software TH-3108SW

DAQ software specially designed in National Instrument™, LABVIEW™ environment to measure and calculate the results of apparatus. The software is optional and while using software a set of electronic sensors are included. Software can be run with any Windows™ environment.

 Scope of Delivery

1 experimental unit
1 set of thermocouple

It provides cold water and heater power to the optional experiments and all the instruments needed to measure their performance.

The Unit’s water system connects to a suitable cold water supply and drain. It includes a hand-operated valve to help give a controllable water flow and a simple return pipe.

The water connections to the optional experiments are self-sealing quick connectors – for safety and simplicity. Changing an experiment takes less than a minute. The Unit provides a variable and measured electrical current to the heater in each experiment and works with a safety switch to stop the heater

from becoming too hot. It also includes sockets for the thermocouples built into each optional experiment.

Clear, multi-line digital displays on the Base Unit show the temperatures and heater power of each experiment.