IT-620 Electrical Power Transmission & Distribution Trainer

Features:

  • Module Based
  • Power Supplies Included
  • Flexibility to Perform Custom Experiments
  • Passive Components Included
  • Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors Loads Included
  • Control Circuits Included
  • P.T. and other Passive Components Included
  • Protection Circuits Included

Experiments Included:

 Three-Phase Transformer Experiments

  • Determination of the vector group of the three-phase transformer.
  • Determination of the voltage transformation ratio of the transformer operating at no-load.
  • Determination of the current transformation ratio of the transformer operating with short-circuit.
  • Determination of the equivalent circuit quantities based on the consumed active and reactive power.
  • Measurement of the effect of the load type and magnitude on the performance of the secondary voltage.
  • Determination of the efficiency of the transformer.
  • Investigation of the zero-impedance of the three-phase transformer with various connection modes.
  • Examination of the load capacity of the secondary side using a single-phase load with different connection modes on the primary side.
  • Determination of the influence of a delta stabilizing winding.
  • Demonstration of the possibility of utilizing a three-phase transformer in economy connection (auto-transformer).

Overhead Line Model Experiments

  • Measurement of the voltage in no-load operation.
  • Concept of operating capacitance.
  • Line model with increased operating capacitance.
  • Measurement of current and voltage relationship of an overhead line in matched-load operation, interpretation of the terms: characteristic wave impedance, lagging and leading operation, efficiency and transmission losses.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line during a three-phase short-circuit.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line with mixed ohmic-inductive and pure inductive loads.
  • Measurement and interpretation of the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line with mixed ohmic-capacitive and pure capacitive loads.
  • Investigation on the performance of a transmission line with isolated neutral point connection in the case of a fault to earth.
  • Measurement of the earth-fault current and the voltage rise of the fault phases.
  • Determination of the inductance of an earth-fault neutralizer for the overhead line model.
  • Investigation on the performance of a transmission line with a fault and comparison of the current values with those determined during earth-fault with isolated neutral point system.
  • Measurement of the fault currents of the results with those for a three-phase fault.
  • Investigation on the effect of parallel compensation on the voltage stability at the load and the transmission losses of the line.
  • Investigation on the effect of series compensation on the voltage stability at the load.
  • Use of measurement techniques to determine the zero-phase sequence impedance of the overhead line model and comparison of this value with the theoretical one.

Alternator and Parallel Operation Experiments

  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the series connection of two lines without operating capacitance.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the series connection of two lines with operating capacitances.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the parallel connection of two lines without operating capacitances.
  • Measurement of the voltage distribution in the parallel connection of two lines with operating capacitance.

Busbar System Experiments

  • Operation of a switching station with two busbars and different voltage.
  • Busbar transfer with interruption of the power supply to the consumer.
  • Busbar coupling and bus transfer without interruption of the power supply to the consumer.
  • Switching sequence for disconnectors and power circuit breakers.

Description

AC electrical power is generated in power stations, usually far from end users. This power is then transported over long distances using high voltage and low loss transmission lines. High voltage is achieved by using step up transformers and is fed to the transmission lines. Similarly, at user end, step down transformers are used to provide power to the users. This is possible only by using transformers. Transformers are used for stepping up the voltage of the generator to values which are suitable for high voltage systems, for power exchanging between networks, for stepping down the voltages to the medium voltage level and then for feeding the power into the low voltage network. In this laboratory a three-phase transformer is investigated. It consists of three individual poles with different connection possibilities on the primary side and variable secondary voltage. Power transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy from the power stations to the consumers.

Advantage of three-phase systems is that it provides the consumers with two different levels of voltage, so that they can use their equipment in the best possible way. A three-phase model of an overhead power transmission line (with a simulated length of 360 km long, a simulated voltage of 380 kV and a simulated current of 1000 A) is used, with a scale factor of 1:1000. Transmission line characteristics are investigated under various load conditions. Circuit configurations are then connected for the demonstration of various neutral point connections in three-phase mains systems. Different voltage levels are used for transmitting power; the levels are determined by the amount of power and the distance; the higher the transmission voltages, the lower the currents as well as the transmission losses. However the network investment cost increases with the voltage.

Asymmetrical short-circuits are also simulated. Other topics covered by this laboratory are reactive power compensation, the basic circuits of power engineering, series and parallel connections of operating equipment (lines, transformers), circuit involving the conversion of delta connections to star connections, circuit involving the conversion of star connections to delta connections, busbars, disconnectors, power circuit breakers, voltage and current transformers.

List of Electrical Power Trainer

Description Module Qty
Variable Three-Phase Power Supply

  • Power supply provides variable 3-Phase Voltage
  • Key Operated Emergency Switch
  • Protection: 10 A, Direct On Line (DOL) Starter
  • Push-Button: Start, Stop and Emergency
  • Motor Protection Breaker: 10 A
  • Digital 3 phase analyzer
  • Output Adjusted by Rotary Knob
  • Output: 3 x 0-380 V @ 8 A
  • Supply voltage: Three-Phase from Mains
IT-6000 1
Line Model

  • Simulated Length: 360km
  • Simulated Voltage: 380kV
  • Simulated Current: 1000A
  • Scale factor: 1:1000
  • Mutual capacitance: 1mF
  • Earth capacitance: 2mF
  • Line resistance: 13Ω
  • Line inductance: 290 mH
  • Earth resistance: 11Ω
  • Earth inductance: 250 mH
IT-6002 2
Three-Phase Transformer

  • Scale Factor: 1:1000
  • Primary Input: 3 x 380 V
  • Connection Type: Star or Delta
  • Secondary Output: 3 x 220 V windings with taps at +5%, -5%, -10%, -15%
  • Star connection for 3 x 380 V various star connections possible
  • Power: 800 VA
  • Tertiary Output: 3 x 220 V windings
  • Delta connection for stabilizing the third harmonic voltage components
IT-6003 1
Resistive Load

  • Max Load in 3-Phase: 1200 W
  • Rated voltage: 380/220V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6004 1
Inductive Load

  • Max Reactive Power: 890 Var
  • Rated voltage: 380/220 V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6005 1
Capacitive Load

  • Max Reactive Power: 1090 Var
  • Rated voltage: 380/220 V
  • Connection Type: Y/
  • Rated voltage in single-phase: 220 V
IT-6006 1
Three-Phase Power Supply

  • Digital 3-phase analyzer
  • Input: 3-Phase 380V
  • Output Protection: 30 A current operated earth leakage circuit breaker
  • Four-pole motor protection switch: 6.3-12 A.
  • Three-phase indicator lamps
  • Output through 5 safety terminals: L1, L2, L3, N and PE
IT-6017 1
Power Circuit Breaker with Integrated PLC

  • PLC integrated inside
  • Contact Load: 400 VAC @ 3 A
  • Supply Voltage: Single-Phase from the mains
IT-6019 4
Double Busbar with Two Disconnectors with Integrated PLC

  • 2 Busbars for parallel lines operation
  • Having 2 outgoing feeders for connection / disconnection
  • PLC integrated inside
IT-6020/2 1
Double Busbar with Four Disconnectors with Integrated PLC

  • 2 Busbars for parallel lines operation
  • Having 4 outgoing feeders for connection / disconnection
  • PLC integrated inside
IT-6020/4 1
Line Capacitor

  • Line Model: 380kV
  • Length: 360km
  • Capacitance: 3 x 2.5 mF @ 450V AC
IT-6021 2
Petersen Coil

  • Inductance with 20 taps for earth fault compensation in transmission lines
  • Inductance: 0.005-2000mH
  • Rated voltage: 220 V
  • Rated current: 0.5 A
IT-6022 1
Moving Coil Ammeter (1000mA)

  • Range:  0-1000 mA AC
IT-6034 1
Moving Coil Ammeter (3A)

  • Range: 0~2.5 A  AC
IT-6035 3
Moving Iron Voltmeter (600V)

  • Range: 0-600V AC
IT-6037 2
Moving Iron Voltmeter (500V)

  • Range: 0-500V AC
IT-6038 3
Power Meter

  • Measurement: Voltage, Current, Frequency, Active Power, Reactive Power and Power Factor
  • Supply: Single Phase from the mains
  • Display: 7-Segment LED
  • Measurement ranges:
  • Volt: 0-600V
  • Current: 5/1A via CT
  • Frequency ranges:
  • Active Power: 50/60 Hz
  • Reactive Power: 50/60 Hz
IT-6048 2
Power Factor Meter

  • Measurement: Voltage, Current, Frequency, Active Power, Reactive Power and Power Factor
  • Supply: Single Phase from the mains
  • Display: 7-Segment LED
  • Measurement ranges:
  • Volt: 0-600V
  • Current: 5/1A via CT
  • Frequency ranges:
  • Active Power: 50/60 Hz
  • Reactive Power: 50/60 Hz
IT-6049 1
Base Frame

  • 2-Level Frame
IT-2L 1
Leads (Accessory)

  • 1 set: 120 Pcs
IT-ACC 1Set

Expansion Module (optional):

IT-620.1

  • Differential Relay (IT-6059)   – 1Pc
  • Three Phase Current Transformer (IT-6044)   – 2Pcs

IT-620.2

  • Earth Fault Relay (IT-6031)   – 1Pc
  • Feeder Motor Relay (IT-6058)  – 1Pc

Experiments with Expansion Module:

IT-620.1

  • Definite time over current protection.
  • Transformer differential protection.

IT-620.2

  • Inverse time over current protection.
  • Earth fault protection.
  • Protection of parallel connected lines.