• Determination of the surface profile of a forced vortex.
  • Determination of the surface profile of a free vortex.
  • Determination of the total head variation in a forced vortex.
  • Comparison of results with theoretical predictions.


  • For studies of both free and forced vortex.
  • Transparent vessel – users can see the vortices from all angles.
  • Includes a traverse probe to measure water surface profile.
  • Low-voltage variable speed motor for safety.
  • Ideal for classroom demonstrations as well as laboratory experiments.
  • Compact and easily installed in the laboratory.

The Vortex Apparatus enables students to produce both free and forced vortex, and measure the vortex water surface profile. The equipment consists of a transparent vessel on a support frame, which mounts on a hydraulic bench. It may also work with another suitable clean water supply and drain. A low-voltage, variable-speed motor rotates the vessel about its vertical axis. A speed-control unit (included), sited away from the main apparatus, controls the speed of rotation. To produce a forced vortex, students add water to the rotating vessel until it is about half full. A forced vortex forms. After a few minutes the vortex becomes constant, and students can measure the surface profile using the traverse probe. The traverse probe can move both horizontally and vertically, and both axes have linear scales.

Students can also measure distribution of total head by replacing the traverse probe with a Pitot tube. To produce a free vortex, students place a smaller, perforated transparent cylinder inside the main vessel. This forms an annulus into which a continuous water supply is directed. When the vessel rotates, water passes through the perforations and spirals slowly inwards to a small hole in the centre of the base of the vessel. The surface falls rapidly towards the centre and produces an air core. Students measure the surface profile using the traverse probe.