• Demonstration of hydraulic gradients in ground water flow, including the effect of permeability.
  • Investigation of hydraulic gradients for different models built on the test tank.
  • Determination of the ground water level between inlet and outlet.
  • Demonstration of the Darcy’s Law.
  • Study of the cone of depression for a well in a confined aquifer.
  • Study of the cone of depression for a well in a free aquifer.
  • Study of the cone of depression cone for two wells.
  • Experiment to obtain hydraulic gradients for a model with two wells. Compare it with the result of only one well by the superposition method.
  • Draining of or lake model.
  • De-watering of an excavation model under freatic level.
  • De-watering of an excavation model using two wells.
  • Interaction of cones of depression by two adjoining wells.
  • Draw-down curves for one well and two wells systems.
  • Comparison of different profiles, combinations.
  • How to fill the manometer tubes.


  • Anodized aluminum frame and panels made of painted steel.
  • The unit includes wheels to facilitate its mobility.
  • Main metallic elements made of stainless steel.
  • Diagram in the front panel with distribution of the elements similar to the real one.
  • Two membrane valves to regulate water inlet flows to the test tank.
  • Two wells symmetrically located in the test tank.
  • Two membrane valves to regulate water outlet flows from the wells.
  • Nineteen tappings to measure the hydraulic gradients, connected to column water manometers of 300 mm. long. The manometers have individual ball valves to purge the tubes.
  • Air manual pump connected to the manometers.
  • Three accessories that make it easy the construction of the different models object of study:
    • Rectangular model for a lake construction.
    • Rectangular model for an excavation construction.
    • Cylindrical model for a confined aquifer construction.
  • Flexible pipes and quick connectors.

Groundwater flows consider, among other things, the extraction of groundwater from wells and excavation pits. An understanding of the hydrological principles of groundwater flow is useful when designing reliable structures such as excavation pits or drainage systems. This apparatus allows three-dimensional investigations of groundwater flows. The trainer consists of a tank with a sand filling. Various models can be placed in the sand bed.

The water is supplied to the tank via two horizontal open-seam tubes that can be activated separately via valves. This results in various experiment possibilities with flowing groundwater. The investigation of various extractions is facilitated by two wells with open-seam tubes, which are also activated individually via valves. Three different models allow the study of excavation pits. At the bottom of the tank there are orthogonally arranged measuring connections to detect groundwater levels. Groundwater levels are displayed on 19 tube manometers.