• Reproducing the classic experiments by Professor Osborne Reynolds on fluid flow conditions.
  • Visualization of the laminar, transitional, turbulent flow, and velocity profile.


  • Visualization of laminar and turbulent flow
  • Determining critical Reynolds number

The Osborne Reynold’s Apparatus has been designed for students to experiment on the laminar, transition, and turbulent flow. It consists of a transparent header tank and flows visualization pipe. The header tank is provided with a diffuser and stilling materials at the bottom to provide a constant head of water to be discharged through a bellmouth entry to the flow visualization pipe. Flow through this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end. The water flow rate through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or volumetric cylinder). The velocity of the water can therefore be determined to allow the calculation of Reynold’s Number. A dye injection system is installed on top of the header tank so that the flow pattern in the pipe can be visualized.

The Osborne Reynolds Demonstration apparatus is equipped with a visualization tube for students to observe the flow condition. The rocks inside the stilling tank are to calm the inflow water so that there will not be any turbulence to interfere with the experiment. The water inlet/outlet valve and dye injector are utilized to generate the required flow.