Process Flow

Water is pumped by the centrifugal pump from the reservoir tank into the turbine casing and spins the turbine as well as DC generator motor. This will generate power and displayed as voltage and current on the control panel. The water will be re-circulated.

The pump motor speed could be varied to perform studies on the centrifugal.

Pelton Turbine

A Pelton turbine mounts on the 3 kW pump and turbine test set base unit. The case in which the Pelton turbine is mounted is transparent. Water leaves a nozzle and heats the buckets. An adjustable spear valve controls the discharge by varying the diameter of the jet from the nozzle. The centrifugal pump on the base unit supplies water to the nozzle. Water from the turbine discharges back into the base unit tank and re-circulates. The turbine shaft connects to the base unit dynamometer. This measures torque and speed.

Specification

  • Number of buckets:16~18
  • Nozzle area: variable 162mm2  when fully open
  • Radius of runner to jet impact position:70~80mm
  • Maximum speed: approximately 1800rpm
  • Speed at maximum efficiency (approximately 80%): approx1200rpm

Francis Turbine

A Francis turbine mounts on the 3 kW pump and turbine test set base unit. The working section of the turbine outlet is transparent. The turbine guide vanes are individually adjustable. Water from the turbine outlet discharges back into the base unit tank and re-circulates. A yaw probe indicates the magnitude and direction of the flow from the turbine outlet. The turbine shaft connects to the base unit dynamometer. This measures torque and speed.

 Specification

  • Impeller blades: 10
  • Impeller diameter: 100mm
  • Impeller inlet height: 14.5mm
  • Impeller outlet diameter: 45mm
  • Guide varies: six adjustable, with positioning guidelines

 

Kaplan Turbine

A Kaplan turbine mounts on the 3 kW pump and turbine test set base unit. The working section of the turbine outlet is transparent. The turbine guide vanes are adjustable. The unit includes three interchangeable rotors, each with different blade angles. The centrifugal pump on the base unit powers the turbine. Water from the turbine outlet discharges back into the base unit tank and re-circulates. A yaw probe indicates the magnitude and direction of the flow from the turbine outlet. The turbine shaft connects to the base unit dynamometer. This measures torque and speed.

Specification

  • Inlet height: 14.5mm
  • Outlet diameter: 88.0mm
  • Inter changeable rotors: three with blade angles of 10o, 20 o and 30 o, diameters 87mm
  • Guide varies: six equi-spaced, diameter 153.4mm

The Multi Turbine Test Rig is designed to be a self-contained unit to demonstrate the operation and performance characteristics of three types of turbines, namely Francis (radial flow) turbine, Kaplan (axial) turbine, and Pelton (impulse) turbine. The turbines will be driven by a 3kWpump and comes complete with dynamometer. The Multi Turbine Test Rig is capable of performing experiments on mechanical power, hydraulic power, hydraulic efficiency, and specific speed.

The Multi Turbine Test Rig consists of a centrifugal pump with controlled motor speed, three interchangeable sets of Pelton, Francis, and Kaplan

turbine complete with individual casing respectively. The test set is a self contained unit comprising two main assemblies; an instrument / control console and a welded steel base frame, which carries the pump, turbine set, and water reservoir tank.

In terms of the functionality, an inverter with speed dial controls the centrifugal pump motor speed in between 0 to approximately 3000 rpm. Power transducer is provided to measure the power consumption of the pump motor. Speed sensors are installed on both pump and DC generator shaft to measure the rotational speed of the motors. Load cell is mounted beneath each motor. The torque arm is directly depressing against the load cell arm, there by compressing against the motion.

With the aid of the torque sensor, we can register and detect the torque or force acting on the motors. A volt meter and an ampere meter are provided to measure volt and current generated by the DC generator. Pressure transmitters are installed on each inlet and outlet of both pump and turbine set to measure the pressure on the respective locations.

Five sets of Resistor banks are installed to provide necessary load to the DC generator during experiment.

Software TH-3138SW (optional)
DAQ software specially designed in National Instrument™, LABVIEW™ environment to measure and calculate the results of apparatus. The software is optional and while using software a set of electronic sensors are included. Software can be run with any Windows™ environment.